Formulation of Biscuits Containing Eucheuma Cottonii Powder and Physicochemical Properties Analysis of the Biscuits


  • Mohamad Bukhari Mohamad Yusup Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nabilah Abdul Samad Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Dayang Norulfairuz Abang Zaidel Institute of Bioproduct Development, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia. Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Eucheuma cottonii, Seaweed biscuits, Seaweed powder, physiochemical


Presently, food eaten not only to satisfy hunger but also to cater nutritional needs and reduce the risk of disease. Now people start to read and put attention to the ingredients list in every food product that they bought and consumed. Respond to the people demand, various food products have been introduced to offer health and diet benefits beyond basic nutrition. Until now, very little research has been done on the substitution of wheat flour with E. cottonii powder in production of biscuits or cookies. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop biscuits formulation containing seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) powder to produce seaweed biscuits and analyse the impacts of E. cottonii powder on the physicochemical quality of biscuits such as physical characteristics, proximate analysis, texture profile and sensory properties. Formulation of seaweed biscuits were using the same material as homemade biscuits. However, additional of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) powder at different ratio and amount of the ingredients were varied. Modification of biscuits formulation by added seaweeds powder give major impacts on the physicochemical properties. Increased the percentage of seaweed powder had increased the level of hardness of biscuits and increased moisture content in seaweed biscuits. Addition of seaweed powder in the formulation also affected the appearance, aroma, taste, colour, texture and sweetness of the biscuits.


AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 1995. Washington, D.C: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Arufe, S., Della Valle, G., Chiron, H., Chenlo, F., Sineiro, J., Moreira, R. 2018. Effect of brown seaweed powder on physical and textural properties of wheat bread. European Food Research and Technology. 244(1): 1–10.

Dawczynski, C., Schubert, R. and Jahreis, G. 2007. Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fibre in edible seaweed products. Food Chemistry. 103(3): 891-899.

Dellarosa, N., L L., Martinsdóttir, E., Jónsdóttir, R. and Sveinsdóttir. K. 2015. Enrichment of convenience seafood with omega-3 and seaweed extracts: Effect on lipid oxidation. LWT Food Science and Technology. 62(1): 746-752.

Guard, A., Rosell, C. M., Benedito de Barber, C. and Galotto, M. J. 2004. Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents. Food Hydrocolloids. 18: 241–247.

Gupta, S., & Abu-Ghannam, N. 2011. Recent developments in the application of seaweeds or seaweed extracts as a means for enhancing the safety and quality attributes of foods. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 12(4): 600-609.

Harnedy, P. A., Fitzgerald, R. J. 2011. Bioactive proteins, peptides, and amino acids from macroalgae. Journal of Phycology. 47(2): 218–232.

Jayasena, V., Nasar-Abbas, S. M. 2011. Effect of lupin flour incorporation on the physical characteristics of dough and biscuits. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods. 3(3): 140–147.

Jenifer A, & Kanjana K. 2018. Effect of Seaweed Based Biscuit Supplementation on Anthropometric Profile of Malnourished Children Residing at Tuticorin. PSGCAS Search: A Journal of Science and Technology. 4(2): 2349–5456.

Khotimchenko, Y.S., Kovalev, V.V., Savchenko, O.V. and Ziganshina, O. A. 2001. Physical– chemical properties, physiological activity, and usage of alginates, the polysaccharides of brown algae. Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 27: S53–S64.

Kumar, K. S., Ganesan, K., & Rao, P. V. S. 2008. Antioxidant potential of solvent extracts of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty - An edible seaweed. Food Chemistry, 107(1): 289–295.

Leandro, A., Pereira, L., Gonçalves, A. M. M. 2020. Diverse applications of marine macroalgae. Marine Drugs, 18(1): 1–15.

Mamat, H., Amin, S. F., Ibrahim, S., Matanjun, P., Abdul Hamid, M. and Rameli, A. S. 2014. The effect of seaweed composite flour on the textural properties of dough and bread. Journal of Applied Phycology. 26: 1057–1062.

Phang, S.M., H.Y. Yeong, P.E. Lim, R.M.N. Adibi and K.T. Gan. 2010. Commercial varieties of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science. 29: 214–224.

Rosell, C. M., Rojas, J. A. and Benedito de Barber, C. 2001. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids. 15: 75–81.

Syamsuar. 2007. Karakteristik Karagenan Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii Pada Berbagai Umur Panen, Konsentrasi KOH dan Lama Ekstraksi. [22 April 2020].

Zakaria A, Jais MR, Ishak R. 2018. Analgesic properties of Nigella Sativa and Eucheuma Cottonii extracts. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine. 9(1): 23–26.