Lactic Acid Production from Sequential Inorganic Salt Pretreated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation


  • Liyana Hazirah Anuar School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nur Amirah Khairina Khairil Anwar School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Keat Long Low School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Noordin Mohd Yusof School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Ani Idris Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security (IPASA), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.


Lactic acid , Bacillus coagulans , Empty fruit bunch , Solid loading , Concentration CaCO3 , Enzyme loading


Lactic acid is produced from inorganic salt pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) for the first time through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). OPEFB is an agricultural waste that can be turned into lactic acid (LA), a highly desired chemical product. An inorganic salt (Na3PO4.12H2O-FeCl3) pretreatment precedes SSF with Bacillus coagulans DSM2314. The effect of solid loading, concentration CaCO3 and enzyme loading on LA generation is studied using design of experiments. The results show that solid loading and concentration CaCO3 affect LA yield. 50g/L biomass, 50g/L CaCO3 concentration, and 50 FPU/g cellulase enzyme yield maximal LA (46.66/L) and yield (0.93/g OPEFB). The model created to predict LA production was then validated.


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